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While affirming the achievements of China's machine tool industry in the past 40 years, it is also necessary to recognize the problems and gaps.

Date:2018-6-26 Author: admin

China's reform and opening up has gone through 40 years of road, the country has undergone earth-shaking changes. In this extraordinary process of reform and opening up, China's machine tool industry has made great progress. Today, the environment at home and abroad has undergone comprehensive and profound changes. socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and the blueprint for the development of the "two centenary" has been drawn up by the CPC Central Committee. It shows us the magnificent prospect of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and "the world is facing a great change that has not been seen in a hundred years." Machine tool industry has been standing in a new historical starting point, we are faced with the development of arduous tasks, severe and complex challenges. It is of great significance for us to make a rational and objective summary of the 40 years of reform and development of the machine tool industry for us to clarify the development path and priority tasks in the next 30 years.

Major achievements and Progress in the past 40 years

The foundation of China's modern machine tool industry originates from the former Soviet Union's construction assistance project which began to be implemented during the first five-year Plan period (1953 ≤ 1957). In the "three-line construction" carried out in the 1960s and 1970s, a large-scale planning and construction has been carried out.Before the reform and opening up, a machine tool industrial system with relatively complete product categories, relatively complete industrial system, and balanced and reasonable industrial layout had been formed, basically undertaking the task of equipping the main departments of the national economy. It has made important contributions to the industrialization construction of New China. Of course, the system established under the planned economy system has various problems with the planning system, such as the lack of vitality of enterprises, outdated equipment, and slow technological progress. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the machine tool industry in western developed countries has entered the era of CNC machine tools in an all-round way, but the CNC technology in China's machine tool industry is still in its infancy, except for a few simpler product categories. Compared with the West, there is a clear gap. After 40 years of reform and opening up, China's machine tool industry has made great achievements and considerable progress, industrial capacity and international status have undergone comprehensive and profound changes.

Fundamental changes in institutional structure. 
Machine tool is the most typical means of production in industrial production. Until the beginning of reform and opening up, China's machine tool industry has been carrying out strict planned economy management and public ownership (the vast majority of which are state-owned). Among them, key backbone enterprises (including "18 Luo Han") and R & D institutions are under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of first Machinery, and their production, supply, and marketing are subject to highly centralized planning management. Even a very small instrument machine tool is not allowed to be produced and circulated unplanned. The R & D, production, sales, material supply, personnel employment, wages and welfare and other basic business activities of the enterprise are under unified management. The enterprises under this system are not the real business subjects. After the reform and opening up, this single structure and rigid management model has been gradually broken. In February 1983, the Ministry of Machinery Industry issued the "trial measures for the Mechanical Industry to implement the principle of a planned economy as the main principle and a market economy as the auxiliary principle" to reform a single mandatory plan. Implementing a management model in which mandatory planning, guiding planning and market regulation go hand in hand, The process of market-oriented reform has been officially launched. In July 1984, the circular of the State Council approving the report of the Ministry of Machinery Industry on the Reform of the Management system of the Machinery Industry was issued, devolving enterprises directly under the former Ministry of Machinery to local management. It marks the comprehensive development of the reform of state-owned enterprises, which takes the separation of government and enterprise and the separation of the two rights (ownership and management rights) as the main content. 
With the deepening of reform and opening up, market access and industrial access have been liberalized in an all-round way. Most of the original state-owned enterprises have implemented different forms of property rights system reform, private enterprises are booming, and a large number of foreign-funded enterprises have poured in. By the first decade of this century, the institutional structure of China's machine tool industry has undergone fundamental changes. Taking the most representative metal cutting machine tool in machine tool industry as an example. In 2015, the number of metal-cutting machine tool enterprises above the scale was 739, of which 71 were state-owned (including collective), 533 were privately controlled and 105 were foreign-controlled (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). The proportion of assets owned by the above three types of enterprises is 38.3%, 48.8% and 10.4%, and the proportion of main business income is 18.4%, 68.7% and 10.8%, respectively, and the proportion of assets owned by the above three types of enterprises is 38.3%, 48.8% and 10.4%, respectively, and that of the main business income is 18.4%, 68.7% and 10.8%, respectively. The proportion of realized profits was-12%, 97% and 13.4%, respectively. Among them, in addition to the asset index (nearly 40%), state-owned enterprises have lost their advantage in several other indicators, dragging down the whole system in terms of profits (- 12%). In contrast, private enterprises have shown strong vitality. It not only has an absolute advantage in the number of enterprises (more than 70%), but also contributes nearly 70% (68.7%) of the main business income and nearly 100% (97%) of the profits with less than half (48.8%) of the assets. Is becoming the new main force in the machine tool industry, A new pattern of common development of various economic components has been formed, which is the most significant and positive change in the machine tool industry in the past 40 years. The competitive vitality brought by this change has made the machine tool industry obtain continuous development power. The source network of this article, if there is infringement, please contact to delete.

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